Autologous stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia. Factors influencing outcome. A 13 year single institution experience.

Carlos Martins, João F Lacerda, Fernanda Lourenço, José A Carmo, J M F Lacerda

Abstract


We report our results of autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with AML during the last 13 years. Between August 1990 and December 2003, 42 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) received an autologous SCT. Patients were classified as standard risk if first complete remission (CR) was induced after one or two chemotherapy regimens and the white blood cell count at presentation was below 50,000/mL (n=12), while patients requiring more than two induction regimens to attain first CR and with CR2 ou more advanced disease and/or had a higher white blood cell count at presentation were defined as high risk (n=30). Twenty one patients were transplanted in first CR. The median patient age was 24 years (range, 2-56 years), and the median time interval from diagnosis to autologous SCT was 9 months (range 3-87 months). The conditioning regimen for SCT consisted of busulfan (BU) 16 mg/kg and melfalan (MEL) 180 mg/m2 (BUMEL) in 17 (40%) patients and busulfan 16 mg/kg and VP-16 60 mg/kg (BUVP16) in 22 (52%) patients. Three patients received a different conditioning regimen with BCNU 300 mg/m2, VP16 2 g/m2 and melphalan 160 mg/m2 (BEM). Twenty five (60%) patients received bone marrow (BM), 11 (26%) patients received peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and 6 patients (14%) received BM plus PBSC. With a median follow-up of 7 years, the 13 year overall survival (OS) and diseasefree survival (DFS) of all patients is 52% and 40%, respectively. In univariate analysis, males had a significantly superior DFS than females (55% vs 22%, p=0.003), and patients younger than 15 years of age had significantly superior OS and DFS than older patients (50% vs 35%, p=0.05; and 50% vs 28%, p=0.03, respectively). Patients with FAB M3 subtype also had a superior OS than the other FAB subtypes (100% vs 44%, p=0.05). There was a strong statistical correlation between risk group and survival. In fact, the patients with standard risk had a superior OS and DFS than those with high risk disease (67% vs 23%, p=0.0004; and 50% vs 27%, p=0.01, respectively). When patients with FAB M3 disease were excluded from the analysis, the group with standard risk continue to have a superior OS and DFS (67% vs 13%, p=0.008; and 50% vs 14%, p=0.02, respectively). We conclude that autologous SCT is an effective treatment in AML with the possibility of long survivorship, particularly in patients with standard risk disease.

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