Coronavirus Disease 2019: Clinical Review

Cristina Carvalho Gouveia, Luís Campos

Abstract


Introduction: In December 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus occurred in Wuhan, the capital of Central China’s Hubei Province and has been declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization since January 2020.
Material and Methods: A comprehensive search using the PubMed database was carried out to summarize the latest published information about the epidemiology, definition, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, treatment options, prognosis and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019.
Discussion: This new strain of coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, enters human cells that express angiotensin-converting enzyme II receptors, which exist in the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and heart, causing coronavirus disease. Transmission occurs essentially through the respiratory tract and the main symptoms are fever, cough and dyspnea. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological, clinical and imaging features and confirmed by nucleic acid testing.
Conclusion: Despite intensive research, the exact origin of the virus and pathophysiology of coronavirus disease is not yet completely known, and clinically approved vaccines and drugs that target severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are lacking.


Keywords


Coronavirus Infections; COVID-19; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

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