Thyroid associated orbitopathy.


  • Marta Alves Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital de S. João, Porto, Portugal.
  • Celestino Neves
  • Davide Carvalho
  • José Luís Medina



Thyroid associated orbitopathy is a clinical entity with pathogenic mechanisms not fully understood, and appears in about 90% of cases in association with hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. Its approach involves the recognition of typical features and the exclusion of other diseases in the less common presentations. The treatment is conditioned by the determination of the activity and severity of the disease. The restoration of the euthyroid state and avoiding of hypothyroidism are essential in mitigating the progression of orbitopathy. Glucocorticoid intravenous therapy is the treatment of choice in the active phase and surgical treatment in the inactive phase. Radiotherapy and cyclosporine in combination with corticosteroids are alternatives when monotherapy is insufficient in the active phase. Treatment should be instituted in specialized centers, with ophthalmologists and endocrinologists acting in synergy to avoid consequences of delays in intervention and in optimizing therapy.


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How to Cite

Alves M, Neves C, Carvalho D, Medina JL. Thyroid associated orbitopathy. Acta Med Port [Internet]. 2012 Jun. 20 [cited 2023 Jun. 1];24(6):1041-50. Available from:



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