Cardiovascular risk factors and childhood obesity.

Marta Moniz, Tânia Marques, Marta Cabral, Zahara Nizarali, Raquel Coelho, Ana Monteiro, Graciete Bragança, Helena Carreiro

Abstract


Even in pediatric age, obesity is associated to cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome, which contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in adulthood.characterize the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in obese children and adolescents followed in pediatric endocrinology.retrospective analysis of cases followed between January 1997 and June 2008, with age between two and eighteen years. Data analyzed included demographic, epidemiological and clinical parameters. BMI z-score, blood pressure, lipid profile and insulinresistance were also studied.We evaluated 886 children with a mean age of 9.4 years (SD ± 3.5), 53.6% female and 60% with android type obesity. The lipid profile was altered in 42.1% of children. Children with dyslipidemia were younger than children without dyslipidemia (9.4 ± 3.33 vs 9.56 ± 3.33, p-0.62) and were predominantly male (55.2% vs 41.1%, p<0.001). There was not a statistically significant difference in z-score between the two groups. High blood pressure was found in 32% of cases. In these cases, the mean z-score was significantly higher (2.4 ± 0.54 vs 2.27 ± 0.49; p-0.001). There was not a statistically significant difference in distribution according to age and gender. Metabolic syndrome criteria's were found in 5.6% of cases and two children with type two Diabetes Mellitus were registered.in the studied population we found a worrying number of obese children with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition to short term complications, the risk of coronary disease and atherosclerosis in adulthood is high, so it is essential an early screening and surveillance program.

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