Renal-cell carcinoma. The basic concepts.

M Reis, M Guimarães


This article includes brief discussions of renal parenchymal neoplasms. The authors summarise epidemiological data and natural history of these lesions, the most relevant histopathologic characteristics, the classification of renal tumors, as well as outcome and the basic principles of treatment and follow-up. The staging systems, survival and prognostic factors in renal cancer are also reviewed. Special attention is given to the detection and earlier diagnosis of renal tumours because of the wider use of sonography and CT scanning. Although this has improved the cure rate of renal cell carcinoma, it has also increased the detection of all types of renal masses, benign and malignant, including those that require surgery and those that do not.

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