Premature Atherosclerosis in HIV-Infected Pediatric Patients: Literature Review and Clinical Approach

Paula Martins, Eduardo Castela, Graça Rocha, Cristina Sena, Raquel Seiça


Human immunodeficiency virus infected children and adolescents are a pediatric group with increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. The virus itself, the antiretroviral therapy and the lifestyle establish a complex interplay of factors that promotes an accelerated atherosclerosis. This process is probably mediated by dyslipidaemia, dysregulation of glucose metabolism, lipodystrophy, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and a prothrombotic state. The clinical approach to this population in terms of cardiovascular prevention is mainly based on efficient treatment of the infection, reduction of the modifiable risk factors and promotion of lifestyle changes.


Anti-Retroviral Agents; Atherosclerosis; Child; HIV Infections; Risk Factors

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