Cardiovascular Complications of COVID-19 Infection

Maria Ana Trêpa, António Hipólito Reis, Mario Oliveira

Abstract


Introduction: Reports of cardiovascular complications related to the COVID-19 infection have been frequent.
Methods: Narrative review for relevant articles on the topic. The classic cardiovascular risk factors, like age, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Cardiovascular complications can have a diverse clinical presentation including silent myocardial injury, acute coronary syndromes, thromboembolism, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure. There are multiple mechanisms of cardiac injury that are not mutually exclusive. The approach to diagnosis and management should be carried out according to usual practice, while considering the particularities of COVID-19 infection.
Conclusion: The interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the heart is complex and is manifested in multiple ways. Regardless of the clinical presentation, cardiac complications convey a worse prognosis. Patients should be actively monitored and treated accordingly.


Keywords


Arrhythmia; COVID-19; Heart Failure; Myocardial Infarction; Pulmonary Embolism; SARS-CoV-2

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