Evaluation of Antiangiogenic Treatment Results in Choroidal Neovascularization Related to Pathological Myopia

Beatriz Carvalho, Paulo Freitas-Costa, João Pinheiro-Costa, Manuel Falcão, Ângela Carneiro, Fernando Falcão-Reis

Abstract


Introduction: Choroidal neovascularization secondary to pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of irreversible central vision loss in younger patients. The purposes of our study is to evaluate the long-term results of antiangiogenic treatment, with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab, in myopic choroidal neovascularization and define the predictive factors for visual and anatomic outcomes.
Material and Methods: In this study were included 84 eyes from 81 patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization. Eighty-four (100%) eyes accomplish 12 months of follow-up, 67 (79.8%) 24 months, 54 (64.3%) 36 months, 29 (34.5%) 48 months, and 15 (16.7%) 60 months. We retrieved data related to best corrected visual acuity measured with ETDRS chart, foveal center thickness on optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiographic findings, before and after treatment.
Results: The best corrected visual acuity and foveal center thickness improvements were statistically significant for all follow-up times (p < 0.05). Mean baseline best corrected visual acuity was 43.7 ± 20.1 letters and mean baseline foveal center thickness was 304.8 ± 127.9μm. Mean best corrected visual acuity was 55.6 ± 18.5, 52.1 ± 22.3, 52.1 ± 22.6, 50.3 ± 23.8 and 47.8 ± 24.5 for 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months of treatment, respectively. Mean foveal center thickness was 209.7 ± 86.2, 190.6 ± 76.1, 174.7 ± 60.6, 189.8 ± 96.7 and 159.4 ± 73.3 for the same follow-up times. Baseline best corrected visual acuity was the only predictive factor for better visual outcome (p < 0.001).
Discussion/Conclusion: Intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization yielded a significant and sustained functional and anatomic improvement. Randomized long-term clinical trials are needed to determine the sustained efficacy of these drugs.

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