Neonatal Morbidity and Gestational Diabetes: Coincidence or Consequence of the 2011 Protocol

Gabriela Mimoso, Guiomar Oliveira

Abstract


Introduction: Gestational diabetes is one of the diseases associated with pregnancy with higher rate of complications. Despite being a transitory condition, short and long term complications related to gestational diabetes have been described. There is scientific evidence to say that good metabolic control decreases perinatal complications. In 2011, new criteria was proposed for its diagnosis, which made possible its diagnosis during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this study is to compare neonatal morbidity in two groups of women with gestational diabetes diagnosis before and after the latest Portuguese guidelines for diabetes and pregnancy were published (February 2011).
Material and Methods: We included all newborns born in Maternidade Bissaya Barreto whose mother, followed at our maternity between 2008 and 2013, had unifetal pregnancy complicated by diabetes. We used a perinatal database and analysed the impact of the new guidelines in perinatal morbidity over two periods of three years.
Results: There were 774 women who met the inclusion criteria. We found that gestational diabetes was diagnosed earlier, insulin therapy was more frequent. Neonatal morbidity was increased, and there were more cases of neonatal hypoglycemia and congenital anomalies, and newborns became smaller for gestational age.
Discussion: The increase in neonatal morbidity was associated with early diagnosis and rigorous metabolic control.
Conclusion: To analyse national data will be fundamental to understand this unexpected increase in morbidity.


Keywords


Diabetes, Gestational; Infant, Newborn, Diseases; Pregnancy Complications

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