Atrial Fibrillation in Cerebrovascular Disease: National Neurological Perspective

Joao Sargento-Freitas, Fernando Silva, Sebastian Koehler, Luís Isidoro, Nuno Mendonça, Cristina Machado, Gustavo Cordeiro, Luís Cunha

Abstract


Background: Cardioembolism due to atrial fibrillation assumes a dominant etiologic role in cerebrovascular diseases due to its growing incidence, high embolic risk and particular aspects of clinical events caused. Our objectives are to analyze the frequency of atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke, study the vital and functional impact of stroke due to different etiologies and evaluate antithrombotic options before and after stroke. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including patients admitted in a central hospital due to ischemic stroke in 2010 (at least one year of follow-up). Etiology of stroke was defined using the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke (TOAST) classification, and functional outcome by modified Rankin scale. We performed a descriptive analysis of different stroke etiologies and antithrombotic medication in patients with atrial fibrillation. We then conducted a cohort study to evaluate the clinical impact of antithrombotic options in secondary prevention after cardioembolic stroke. Results: In our population (n = 631) we found superior frequency of cardioembolism (34.5%) to that reported in the literature. Mortality, morbidity and antithrombotic options are similar to other previous series, confirming the severity of cardioembolic strokes and the underuse of vitamin K antagonists. Oral anticoagulation was effective in secondary prevention independently from post-stroke functional condition. Conclusions: Despite unequivocal recommendations, oral anticoagulation is still underused in stroke prevention. This study confirms the clinical efficacy of vitamin K antagonists in secondary prevention independently from residual functional impairment.


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